The White Chapel Bell Foundry was established in 1570 and at the time of its closure in 2017 was the oldest manufacturing business in England. It is perhaps the best known of the British bell foundries, having cast some of the most famous bells in the world. Among these is the Liberty Bell, the iconic symbol of American liberty from all forms of oppression. The bell was first cast at the Whitechapel foundry in 1752 for the newly completed bell tower at the Pennsylvania State House. However it cracked when first rung later that year. Because of transportation difficulties, the bell could not be returned to London. Two local craftsmen with dubious experience volunteered to recast the bell. By 1753, the recast bell was ready for testing. On this second attempt, while the bell did not crack, the sound produced was so hideous that the bell had to be recast again. A few months later the third cast was completed and finally a satisfactory bell had been created. To this day, the Whitechapel Bell Foundry denies responsibility for the initial crack. They claim that the bell must have been damaged en route. Extensive study has failed to provide a definitive conclusion.